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         nuclear) and causing collateral damage. These weapons have been successfully tested by the United States, Russia, Chi- na and India (Mission Shakti in 2019). It is interesting to note that the HAM- MER (Hyper-velocity Asteroid Mitiga- tion Mission for Emergency Response) technology developed by NASA can be used to power steer an incoming asteroid towards its enemy.
The Ground-to-Space non-kinetic weapons such as Uplink Jammer, Laser Dazzler/Blinder, and Cyberattacks are aimed to disrupt, degrade or destroy the ability of satellites/sensors to function properly without having any physical contact. Russia has developed Peresvet laser cannon that is capable of zapping satellites. The US forces have begun operating a new offensive weapon sys- tem, an advance ground-based satellite communications jamming system. This system is targeted mainly at geostation- ary communications satellites. Multiple nations have demonstrated these capa- bilities, including Russia, China, Iran and others.
The Space-to-Space kinetic weapons are meant to physically damage satellites through co-orbital satellite collision or firing warhead (conventional/nuclear) and causing permanent damage. The Soviet Union had tested co-orbital kinetic ASAT weapons repeatedly during the Cold War.
The Space-to-Space non-kinetic weapons such as Co-orbital Crosslink Jammer or Co-orbital High-powered Microwave are aimed to disrupt, de- grade or destroy the ability of satellites/ sensors to function properly without having any physical contact. The US is running a laser gun programme called Excalibur. It uses electricity to emit la- sers which can concentrate devastating energy rays on their targets.
The Space-to-Ground kinetic weapons are meant for global strike by launching weapons with conventional/ nuclear warheads placed in orbit that re- enter the atmosphere to strike a target on ground, when commanded. “Rods from the God” by the US is based on the con- cept of creating man-made meteorites made out of tungsten — a rare metal that
can withstand the intense heat generated by entering the Earth’s atmosphere with the ability to destroy hardened targets, like underground bunkers or reinforced structures, accurate enough to strike very close to the target.
The Space-to-Ground non-kinetic weapons such as Space-based Downlink Jammer, Space-based High-powered Laser are designed to target assets on Earth, such as a laser used to target mis- siles or aircraft in flight or a jammer used to interfere with operations of radars or satellite ground stations or navigation systems. When used, the effects would be localised to the target area, but such a system could theoretically strike any- where without warning. While the US military has contemplated space-based lasers for boost-phase missile defence, there are no open-source examples of such a system being tested.
In view of a large number of space ob- jects, implementation of Space Situation- al Awareness (SSA) capability is very
        Image Courtesy: DRDO

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