Page 9 - April 2021
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          The US is soliciting industry proposals for the development of a new network of LEO satellites, designed specifically to detect, track, and provide advanced warning against hypersonic weapons. The detection and tracking of hypersonic weapons is a challenging task and pro- vides low reaction times for the air defence systems due to its low flying altitude and high speed.
The US is also planning to execute Space-based Deterrence Programme with constellations varying in size from 300 to more than 500 satellites in LEO rang- ing from 750 km to 1,200 km in altitude. With a full constel- lation, 95% of the locations on earth will have at least two satellites in view at any given time, while 99% of the locations will have at least one satellite in view. This will ensure constant surveillance around the globe.
INDIA’S DUAL APPLICATION SATELLITES
As far as civil and military dual application for satellites is con- cerned, India currently has fol- lowing operational satellites:
nRadar Imaging Satellite-2 (RI- SAT-2) has Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). It has a day-night, all-weather monitoring capability with one meter resolution. RISAT-2B was launched by ISRO in 2019 to replace RISAT-2. n The CARTOSAT-2 series carries state-of-the-art Panchromatic (PAN) camera that takes black and white pic- tures of the earth in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. CAR- TOSAT-3 was launched in November 2019 for adding new dimension to military’s strategic depth by providing very high-resolution images.
n GSAT-6 is strategic satellite mainly for use by the armed forces for secure communication. The Indian Navy presently uses GSAT-7 for real-time communication among its warships, submarines, aircraft and land sys- tems. GSAT-7A or ‘angry bird’ — an
advanced military communication sat- ellite for the Indian Air Force (IAF), was launched in December 2018. It is enhancing network-centric warfare ca- pabilities by interlinking with the IAF ground radar network and Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) aircraft.
n EMISAT was launched in April 2019 to detect emissions across the electro-
Defence Minister Rajnath Singh with the Mission Shakti missile that was successfully fired in 2019
magnetic spectrum.
n IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system being developed by ISRO. It will provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Service (SPS) which is provided to all the users and Restricted Service (RS), which is an encrypted service provided only to the authorised military users.
In order to meet Indian requirement of space-based Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR), constel- lations of advanced communi- cations satellites are required to provide Internet services for the military. Several constella- tions of Electro-Optical, Syn- thetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Electronic Intelligence (ELINT) and Communication Intelli- gence (COMINT) satellites are to be placed in appropriate or- bits for ISR. Small satellites on hot-standby will be required to be launched at short notice into LEO for ISR needs during cri-
ses. There should be adequate Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) satellites with C4ISR capability, as well as satellites for meeting operational and navigation functions. To meet all these requirements, India would need numer- ous PSLV, GSLV, and Launch on De- mand (LoD) launchers every year. This would mean creating significant indig- enous launch capacity.
SPACE WEAPONS
Space weapons can be categorised as those that attack targets in space (anti- satellite or ASAT) or attack targets on ground from space or attack targets transiting through space (anti-ballistic missile).
The Ground-to-Space kinetic weap- ons or ASAT are developed to attack sat- ellites through warheads (conventional/
 Space weapons can attack targets in space from ground or attack targets on ground from space or attack targets transiting through space.
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