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    From left: Acharya PC Ray, Meghnad Saha, Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya and Sister Nivedita gave monumental push to the development of Indian identity in modern sciences
 this statement and uphold Indian pride, Bose took the path of satyagraha and taught for three years without salary. Finally, he was able to join the Imperial Education Services. He was the first in the world who experimentally demon- strated the transmission of microwaves. But such an outstanding achievement was not recognised, and later Guglielmo Marconi was awarded the Noble Prize for demonstrating his work on long-dis- tance wireless telegraph. On September 14, 2012, Bose’s experimental work in millimetre-band radio was recognised as an IEEE Milestone in Electrical and Computer Engineering.
He also carried out many important discoveries in the subjects of Botany, Biophysics and many others. He was a firm believer in the Indian ideology of free knowledge. He never patented for his discoveries and advocated for the same. He also wrote many science fiction stories for popularising science. In 1917, on his birthday, he started a sci- ence institute named Basu Vigyan Man- dir for interdisciplinary experimental re- search. In his inaugural address, he said:
Botanical Survey of India was founded in Calcutta in 1890
Even had the capacity for inquiry and accurate observation been assumed to be present, there were no opportuni- ties for their employment; there were neither well-equipped laboratories nor skilled mechanicians. This was all too true. It is not for man to complain of circumstances, but bravely to accept, to confront and to dominate them, and we belong to that race which has accom- plished great things with simple means.’
Meghnad Saha was a renowned physicist born in 1893 in Shaoratoli, a village near Dhaka. He was professor and dean of the science faculty at the University of Calcutta. He was elected fellow of the Royal Society in 1927 and president of the Indian Science Congress in 1934. He is known for the Saha equation, one of the essential tools for interpreting the spectra of stars in astrophysics. Along with Sa- tyendra Nath Bose, he translated Albert Einstein’s and Hermann Minkowski’s papers on relativity for easy availability in India. He was a nationalist and contrib- uted to political activities as well.
was one of the greatest physicists and the first Indian and Asian to win the Noble prize in any discipline of science. He may be considered the first fruit of the nationalist science movement start- ed by Dr Mahendralal Sircar by estab- lishing the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science.
Raman was born on November 7, 1888, in Tiruchirapalli. He qualified for India’s most prestigious government service in those days, the Indian Finance Services, with the first rank and joined as Assistant Accountant General in Cal- cutta. There he came in contact with the IACS. He started working there in his off-hours. IACS started a journal Bulletin of Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science in 1909, to which Raman was the major contributor. Ra- man referred to his IACS days as the golden days of his life. He founded the Indian Academy of Sciences in Banga- lore in 1934 and started publishing the academy’s journal Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences. He also started a company called Travancore Chemical and Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in 1943. In 1948, he established Ra- man Research Institute in Bangalore for basic research.
So, we can easily observe that Indian scientists contributed overwhelmingly in nurturing an all-encompassing spirit of nationalism. However, the contribution of Indian scientists in fostering a nation- al identity has remained overshadowed in the story of India’s freedom struggle.
*The writer is Associate Professor, CSE Department, IIT-BHU, Varanasi
‘I dedicate today this Institute — not merely a Laboratory but a Temple. The power of physical methods applies to the establishment of that truth which can be realised directly through our senses, or through the vast expansion of the per- ceptive range by means of artificially created organs... Thirty-two years ago, I chose the teaching of science as my vocation. It was held that by its very peculiar constitution, the Indian mind would always turn away from the study of Nature to metaphysical speculations.
Sir Chandrashekhar Venkat Raman 22 SCIENCE INDIA AUGUST, 2021
         All Images Courtesy: Internet

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