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  Nobel laureate CV Raman founded the Indian Academy of Sciences in Bangalore in 1934
Industrial Association (IIA) in 1891. The IIA arranged popular lectures on coal and fibres and members experimented with indigenous raw materials. As a part of the national education movement, P K Roy and Sircar demanded separate science courses in physics, chemistry, botany and math at Calcutta Univer- sity in the 1890s. Through the efforts of Nilratan Sircar, JC Bose and Sircar, the Science Degree Commission was set up in 1898 which recommended the same.
Jogendranath Ghosh founded the Association for the Advancement of Sci- entific and Industrial Education (AASIE) in 1904. This Association played an im- portant role in sending Indian students abroad in the Swadeshi movement. A leading educationist of Bengal, Satish Chandra Mukherjee launched the Dawn Society in 1902 to promote the idea of national education. The society’s maga- zine, The Dawn, provided an important platform for popularising science and applied science literature. The Dawn Society became the National Council of Education (NCE) in 1906 to organ- ise parallel structures of education on ‘national lines under national control’.
Ashutosh Mukherjee’s appoint- ment as the Vice Chancellor of Calcutta University in 1912 further boosted the cause of science for Indians as he started postgraduate research and teaching at the university.
The movement had begun well
and spread within the scientific circles of Calcutta; it had a domino effect in other parts of the country too. In Tamil Nadu, the Tamil Scientific Terms Society was established at Salem in Madras in 1916 by C Rajagopalachari. It coined new words in Tamil for terms related to botany, chemistry, physics, astronomy and mathematics. Karnataka Vijnana Pracarini Samiti was formed for the popularisation of science in regional languages.
The Indian School of Chemistry un- der PC Ray encouraged and trained a generation of students, who immensely contributed to the development of chem- istry departments in the universities and gave at least four generations of chem- ists. The base for the Indian Chemical Society (1924) was, in fact, provided by the students of PC Ray, going back to the dream he shared with Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar in London.
Similarly, the School of Physics
The indigenous science movement, which began in Bengal, had a domino effect in other parts of the country too with societies being formed in Patna, Madras, Bangalore and other cities.
emerged in Calcutta. CV Raman, JC Bose and MN Saha constituted this school but until 1920, Raman was its leader and the school came to be identi- fied as the ‘School of Raman’.
Activities related to science and technol- ogy publications grew rapidly during the mid-1930s. This period is associated with the creation of a series of support structures. Parallel to colonial science, there emerged a stream of early science policy efforts in nation-building through a number of private initiatives which placed Indian science in the international scientific domain.
Patna Science College’s Philosophical Society was established circa 1931. The Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore, was founded by Sir CV Raman, and was registered as a society on April 24, 1934. Inaugurated on July 31 the same year, it began with 65 founding fellows. In their first general meeting held on the same day, the constitution of the academy was adopted and Raman was elected presi- dent. The Indian Science News Asso- ciation was established in 1935 with the initiative of Meghnad Saha and PC Ray. Madras Science Club was started in 1935 with the initiative of KS Varadachar, who was actively associated with the founda- tion of the journal Current Science.
The integration of research activ- ity to advance science in these societies
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