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  Above: JC Bose (sitting, centre) with his students who were the earliest beneficia- ries of Indian initiatives in science; Right: Pramatha Nath Bose, who set up Indian Industrial Association, organised popular lectures for members; Below, right: Rajendralal Mitra was the first Indian president of the Asiatic Society of Bengal
 enabled the leading scientists to make a significant departure from the era of colonial science.
For the period 1807-1947, as many as 6,008 Indian scholarly publications appeared in 244 journals, which com- prised the following: 4,899 articles, 880 letters, 125 notes, 43 reviews, 7 confer- ence papers and 6 short surveys.
From the earliest publication in 1807 till 1858, India’s scientific publication history was irregular as only about 99 articles were published in half a cen- tury. But a massive growth was seen from 1929 onwards with 123 articles published in that year alone. The highest number of publications was in the year 1936 with 377 articles published from India. Perhaps, the growth of publication in the 1930s was due to the consolida- tion of institution-building process. The maximum number of publications were published in Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences, Section A (1432 papers) followed by Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Section B (621 papers). The most productive au- thor was T R Seshadri from Andhra University with 175 articles in the area of chemistry followed by NR Dhar with 143 articles from the University of Al- lahabad and Raman with 74 articles from Indian Association for the Culti-
vation of Science and Indian Institute of Science. The maximum research activity was observed in the area of chemistry followed by agricultural and biologi- cal science. Indian scientists preferred to publish their research output in In- dian journals. The Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences published by the Indian Academy of Science since 1934 were the most preferred journals of publication.
National science truly started to grow once the Indian scientists came up with their own societies as it enabled them to do their research with freedom. Though the monetary situation was not favourable, the support structures creat- ed in the early 1900s proved to be a great boon for science in India in the next four decades and enabled further consolida- tion of the base of national science.
This emerging nationalism in the sci- entific community was very much con- nected to the struggle for independence. This community fought to get interna- tional accolades for national science and Indian scientists. The influence area of this group was limited but they believed that scientific excellence at international level could bring back the enthusiasm and dedication of Indians towards their homeland. With CV Raman winning the Nobel Prize in 1930 and later get-
ting two more fellowships of the Royal Society, fellow researchers were infused with unprecedented energy and enthusi- asm. These accomplishments in the early years of the 20th century were the result of the support structures created in the second half of the previous century. JC Bose had once said that the “impulse from outside reacts on impressionable bodies in two different ways. So, the first impetus of Western education impressed itself on some in a dead monotony of imi- tation of things Western while in others it awakened all that was greatest in the national memory”.
* The writer is Associate Editor,
Science India
        Image Courtesy: Royal Asiatic Collections
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Image Courtesy: Wikipedia

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