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SCIENCE INDIA
AUGUST, 2021
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Landmarks of India’s Scientific
...And the Response of Indian Scientists to Become Scientifically Self-reliant
1757: The Battle of Plassey was fought on June 23, 1757. The victory of the East India Company in this battle laid the foundation for the British rule in India.
1767: Survey
of India was established to map the subcontinent and assess its immense natural wealth.
1784: Asiatic Society of Calcutta was established that elected only Europeans as its members till 1828.
1787: 300-acre Botanical Garden was established
on the banks of Hooghly, at Sibpur, near Calcutta, to assess the country’s botanical wealth
for its use by the colonial power.
1817: Hindoo College was established,
now known
as Presidency University, Kolkata. Most of India’s early stalwart scientists studied and later taught at this University.
1818: The Trigonometrical Survey of
Peninsular India was renamed the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India (GTS). This important body carried out detailed mapping of India to aid growth and expansion of the colonial empire.
1853: On April 16,
rail was introduced by the British, primarily to transport natural resources from India’s interiors to ports for further shipping to England.
1857: The University of Calcutta was established on January 24. It became one of the first multidisciplinary institutions in Asia.
1857: The Madras University was established on September 5. It is one of the oldest universities in India, incorporated by an Act of Legislative Council of India under the British government.
1876: The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) was established
on January 15 by Mahendralal Sircar, with the vision to promote national science, independent of colonial government.
1891: Indian Industrial Association was established by Pramatha Nath Bose.
1894: Crystals were first used as radio wave detectors in 1894 by Jagadis Chandra Bose
in his microwave experiments. Bose first patented a crystal detector in 1901.
1895: The first
public demonstration of microwave transmission was made by Jagadis Chandra Bose in Calcutta. Bose’s revolutionary demonstration forms the foundation of
the technology
used today in
mobile telephony, radars, satellite communication, radio, television broadcast, WiFi, remote controls and countless other applications.
1901: India’s first pharmaceutical
company, Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceutical Works Ltd. (BCPW), was established by Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray.
1902: The Dawn Society was launched by Satishchandra Mukherjee in Calcutta, a leading educationist of Bengal, to promote the idea of national education.
1904: The Association for
the Advancement of Scientific
and Industrial Education (AASIE) was founded by Jogendranath Ghosh.
1906: The Dawn Society became the National Council
of Education
(NCE) to organise parallel structures of education on ‘national lines under national control’.
1906: The Society for the Promotion of Technical Education was launched by Tarak Nath Palit
and Nilratan Sarkar, which established the Bengal Technical Institute.






























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