Page 37 - Science India August 2022
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                 HOMI JEHANGIR BHABHA
Father of Indian Nuclear Programme, Physicist
Founding director, and professor
at the Tata Institute of Fundamen- tal Research (TIFR). Known as
the Father of the Indian Nuclear Programme, Bhabha was the found- ing director of the Atomic Energy Establishment,Trombay (AEET) which is now named the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in his honour. Was nominated for the Nobel Prize in 1951 and 1953–1956.
Scholar, Educational Reformer, Politician
Popularly called ‘Mahamana’, he founded the Banaras Hindu Uni- versity (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916 and was its vice chancellor from 1919 to 1938. He helped establish the Hindu Mahasabha in 1906, which brought diverse local Hindu nationalist movements together. In 2014, he was posthumously con- ferred with the Bharat Ratna, the country’s highest civilian award.
Physicist, Botanist
Pioneered investigation of the radio and microwave optics, and made significant contributions
to plant science by inventing the crescograph, a device for measuring the growth of plants. Was a major force behind the expansion of experimental science in India. He founded Bose Institute in 1917 in Calcutta and is also known as the father of Bengali science fiction.
Medical Doctor, Social Reformer
He founded the Indian Associa- tion for the Cultivation of Science in Calcutta in 1876. Dr Sircar left Allopathy practice and adopted Homeopathy under the influence of Rajendralal Dutt. In 1868,
Dr Sircar started publishing a new monthly journal, called the Calcutta Journal of Medicine, to convey his ideas and popularise the Homeo- pathic treatment.
Industrialist, Philanthropist, Institution Builder
Jamsetji was a pioneer industrialist, who founded the Tata Group, India’s biggest conglomerate. He founded the Tata Steel and established Jam- shedpur city (Tatanagar in present- day Jharkhand). His contributions resulted in the establishment of the Indian Institute of Science, Banga- lore, in 1909. Swami Vivekananda was a major influence in the scien- tific vision of JN Tata.
Developed the Saha ionization equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars. His work allowed astronomers to accurately relate the spectral class es of stars to their actual tempera- tures. The Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kolkata is named after him. He was elected to the Parlia- ment of India in 1952 from Kolkata.

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