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           Agharkar Research Institute was established in 1946 by the Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science as MACS Research Institute and renamed as ARI in 1992
 n Dr Kishore M Paknikar
Pune (then called Poona) emerged as one of the major centers of na- tionalism under the leadership of its greatest icon, Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Apart from his social reforms and po- litical movements, Tilak and educa- tionist-thinker Gopal Ganesh Agarkar set up several educational institutes in Pune, like the Deccan Education So- ciety and Fergusson College in 1885, soon after the first Universities in India were started in 1857. The objectives of university education were three-fold: (i) to broaden the base and spread liberal education to the masses, (ii) to diffuse Image Courtesy: Agharkar Research Institute scientific knowledge, and (iii) to prepare young graduates for technological work for the development and progress of the country in science and basic technology. However, although these early universi- ties succeeded in educating the masses and spreading knowledge, they did very
MACS: The Story of Grit, Dedication, and Personal Sacrifices
Brilliant scientists driven by a zeal for research for and by Indians came together under the leadership of Prof SP Agharkar to create this enduring institution
little in the first 75 years to generate new knowledge, especially in science.
With its numerous educational in- stitutions and colleges, Pune had made striking advances in humanities, es- pecially in Linguistics, Mathematics, Sanskrit, Archaeology, and History. However, despite excellent institutions and a great manufacturing centre like Bombay nearby, little or no efforts were made to foster the spirit of scientific re- search. Some were made only at indi- vidual levels and were unorganised. The need, therefore, was felt for carrying out scientific and technical research in a more organised way during the pre- independence period.
This problem became quite appar- ent to Prof SP Agharkar, who had re- tired as Ghosh Professor of Botany at Calcutta University in 1944 and made Pune his new home. He met Dr MR Jayakar, Dr DR Gadgil and other edu- cationalists in Pune who were trying to upgrade the teaching in science to pro- mote research.
By this time, there was a move to set up a new University in Poona. But it was thought better not to wait till the formation of the Poona University and explore the possibility of starting a Sci- ence Institute. The Indian Law Society took the lead in this matter. A meet- ing was organised at the initiative of

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